In major cities, summer and winter temperatures are higher than in the surrounding rural areas. For a medium size city, it is calculated that the temperature difference between downtown areas and the outskirts ranges from 0.5 C and 3 C, with significant variations in microclimate.
This phenomenon, known as the “Urban Heat Islandor UHI effect, is chiefly due to the fact that the asphalted and concrete surfaces of built-up areas absorb larger amounts of solar energy: on sunny summer days, streets and roofs can often reach temperatures in excess of 60 to 90 C.
Cool roofs, as the name implies, are roofs that heat up very little, thanks to their high capacity to reflect solar radiation and, at the same time, to emit infrared heat energy. They can be an effective solution to the problem of overheating that afflicts individual buildings and urban areas in the summer, mitigating the heat island effect.

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